Twenty-eight rabbits underwent conjunctival replacement with peritoneal autografts. The grafted peritoneum acted as a scaffold for the remaining healthy conjunctiva which gradually replaced the grafted peritoneum. Peritoneum is not an effective conjunctival substitute as it does not survive in its own right. I should like to thank Professor Norman Ashton, FRS for his most helpful guidance and constructive criticism in this work. My thanks are also due to Miss E. Robins for her enthusiastic technical support; to Mr. R. Alexander and Mr R. Keeble for their technical and photographic assistance, and to Miss E. FitzGerald for her secretarial help.