Massive periretinal proliferation (MPP), a serious complication of retinal detachment, is caused by proliferation and fibrous metaplasia of cells mostly deriving from retinal pigment epithelium and retinal glial cells. Contracting fibrous membranes in the vitreous, and on and also under the retina, cause the intraocular changes of MPP. Early signs such as increased 'tobacco dust', pigmented and unpigmented clumps in the vitreous, and subtle preretinal and even retroretinal membranes are usually overlooked. The late signs such as starfolds, irregular retinal folds, circumferential folds, and funnel-shaped detachments are well known. The pathogenesis of the clinically visible signs is described, and a 4-stage classification of the disease is given.
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