The association of various personal, occupational, and environmental factors with cataracts and pseudoexfoliation of the lens (PXF) was examined in a group of Australian Aborigines. Cataracts occurred more commonly in the elderly but were also associated with high levels of ultraviolet radiation and sunlight and were more commonly seen in lower latitudes. PXF was also seen more commonly in the elderly, especially among males. PXF occurred particularly commonly in stockmen and was related to latitude and global radiation. It was positively associated with the occurrence of cataract and with climatic droplet keratopathy. It is suggested that senile cataracts are related to the amount of ultraviolet radiation and PXF to global radiation.