Sixty-four people with pigmentary anomalies of the skin were examined in the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea. Thirty-one had a bronze-red skin colour which appears to be unique to New Guinea. Eighteen of the Red-skins had congenital nystagmus which was not associated with impairment of visual acuity. The fundi were normal. The pigmentary anomaly is recessively inherited, and the gene responsible for the nystagmus appears to be associated with those controlling skin colour. The condition appears to be a unique form of albinism and confers no disadvantage on those who have it.