The anterior chambers of 27 rabbit eyes were perfused at constant pressure with room temperature (25 degrees C) or cooled (11 degrees C) balanced salt solution at constant flow rates of 4.8 ml/min or 8.5 ml/min. Intraocular temperature changes in the anterior chamber, anterior vitreous, mid vitreous, and posterior vitreous and on the retina surface were monitored with an intraocular thermocouple probe. Perfusion of the anterior chamber of the pigmented rabbit eye with cooled fluid significantly reduced the temperature of the anterior chamber and anterior vitreous and even that of the retina. Both an increase in the rate of perfusion and a lowering of the perfusion temperature enhanced the cooling effect. The observed decrease in temperatures returned to approximately normal 4 minutes following the cessation of perfusion.