Male mice, strain C57 black, were infected with Toxocara canis by a single intragastric dose of 1500 infective eggs. The eyes were studied at sequential time periods after infection (6 to 63 days) by conventional microscopic techniques, and the histological characteristics of the inflammatory response were recorded. In the majority of animals the disease was unilateral. Twenty-six larvae were found in the retina, in the retinal vessels, and in the subretinal space in 20 eyes, while in 29 eyes there were inflammatory changes which were not related to the presence of intact or fragmented larval forms. The inflammatory reaction began as a polymorphonuclear response but after day 13 became a granulomatous reaction. This suggests that the inflammatory phenomenon may be propagated by the secreted surface antigens in the absence of the living or dead larvae.