Twenty patients with a traumatic third nerve palsy had sustained a closed head injury with prolonged loss of consciousness in a high-speed deceleration accident. Sixteen were male, and the average age was 25 years. Seven had skull or facial fractures, 15 damage to the anterior visual pathways, and 16 other permanent neurological damage. Nineteen developed the misdirection/regeneration syndrome. Thirteen had strabismus surgery, and an area of binocular single vision was enlarged or achieved in three.