Appropriate use of base-out prisms may be useful objective test for detecting persistence of normal binocular vision (4-dioptre prism test). By prolonged observation of prismatic correction of an esotropic patient one may infer the presence of an anomalous sensorial status. This can be done when the prismatic correction is compensated for by an increase of the angle of esotropia (prism adaptation test). The increase in the angle of esotropia induced by base-out prisms, here called anomalous movements, is probably related to a type of anomalous movement fusional in nature. When anomalous movements are present, it is important to realise how powerfully they have developed. This may be inferred by determining what amount of prism overcorrection of the esotropic angle the patient is capable of compensating for (progressive prism compensation test). This has important implications for surgery. It has been statistically demonstrated that esotropia with strong anomalous movements tends to respond less effectively to surgery than esotropia without or with weak anomalous movements.
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