A penetrating corneal graft was performed in 12 patients for corneal opacification induced by silicone oil. The patients were all aphakic. They had had vitrectomy and silicone oil injection for complicated retinal detachment, often with periretinal proliferation. The average follow-up time was 13.7 months, during which four out of 11 grafts failed (one case was lost to follow-up). One patient developed severe calcific band keratopathy, and three grafts failed from endothelial decompensation. Changes induced by silicone oil include band keratopathy, thinning, and endothelial damage. The indications for keratoplasty for these corneal changes are discussed.