We investigated the incidence of circulating corneal epithelium antibodies in patients with uveitis. A high percentage of the patients (42%) were positive, whereas only 4% of controls had these antibodies in their serum. Significantly more patients with anterior and diffuse uveitis had corneal epithelium antibodies than did those with posterior uveitis. Subdivision of anterior uveitis into HLA-B27 positive versus negative patients showed a higher incidence of the antibodies in the HLA-B27 positive group. A previous history of uveitis may play a role in the pathogenesis of peripheral corneal thinning diseases, for which an autoimmune aetiology has been suggested.