The results are presented of fluorescein angiography of the iris in 11 patients with anterior segment pigment dispersal syndrome. These show a general hypovascularity of the iris with fine neovascularisation at the pupil margin and the peripupillary area. Hypoplasia of the iris stroma was also present in many cases. When the condition was virtually unilateral, the vascular changes were present though less marked in the relatively unaffected eye. It is postulated that the anterior segment pigment dispersal syndrome is secondary to a congenital mesodermal deficiency of the iris stroma with hypovascularity of the iris, which forms a poor support tissue for the pigment epithelium of the iris, resulting in shedding of pigment granules particularly in the region of the attachment of the dilator muscle to the pigment epithelium. The condition may be hereditary. Because of the hypovascularity the mesodermal hypoplasia may be progressive, but pigment release may diminish in later life with treatment, with consequent diminution of pupil activity.