Early long lasting binocular deprivation results in behavioural blindness in both man and experimental animals. However, few reported cases show that visual rehabilitation may improve visual behaviour. A 34-year-old man who had experienced 30 years of binocular deprivation due to bilateral cataracts received visual rehabilitation for one year. The rehabilitation included training in eye-hand co-ordination, recognition of objects, evaluation of distance and size, and mobility training. Despite signs of recovery of visual functions the patient never started to use vision in his normal life. The negative outcome of the rehabilitation is partly attributed to the patient's motivational problems and to the relatively short rehabilitation time. Visual rehabilitation may be successful when started immediately after the corrective operation on the eyes when the level of motivation is also high.