We retrospectively studied 50 consecutive cases of exogenous endophthalmitis treated between 1972 and 1985. Twenty-two of these cases occurred after penetrating ocular trauma and the remaining 28 followed ocular surgery. Thirty-two (64%) of the cases were culture-positive. A wide variety of organisms were identified in the post-traumatic cases, while the isolated agent in the majority of postoperative cases was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Twenty-nine of the 50 patients received treatment with vitrectomy and intraocular antibiotics; of these, 14 (48%) achieved final visual acuities better than or equal to 20/400. Of the 21 patients who were treated with parenteral, topical, and subconjunctival antibiotics alone eight (38%) reached this same final visual acuity. Culture-negative cases, postoperative cases, and cases treated with vitrectomy and intraocular antibiotics were associated with improved visual outcomes.