Changes in astigmatism during development were studied in 299 infants with astigmatism as they grew from 1 to 4 years of age. All consecutive cases of 1-year-old infants with an astigmatism of 1.0 D or more in at least one eye found at an ophthalmic screening survey were selected for follow-up. The cycloplegic refraction was longitudinally followed at yearly intervals. During development there was no decrease in the degree of hypermetropia, but there was a significant decrease in the incidence and amount of astigmatism during the test period. The most pronounced decrease in magnitude and incidence of astigmatism occurred between the first and second year of life. The majority of astigmatic eyes of the 1-year-old infants had a horizontal curvature greater than the vertical (plus cylinder axis of 180 degrees), and no changes of the axis of the astigmatism were noted during the following years.