Glaucoma is considered to be an uncommon complication of Hansen's disease (leprosy). This study determined the prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma in a large institutionalised leprosy population. All 193 patients currently residing at the Gillis W Long Hansen's Disease Center received a complete ophthalmic examination and review of their records. All had been previously treated with dapsone and/or clofazimine. Based on the strict definition of a recorded intraocular pressure greater than or equal to 22 mm Hg and characteristic optic nerve pathology, 19 patients (10%) were found to have glaucoma. Glaucoma secondary to uveitis was noted in 11 of these patients. These findings suggest that the chronic inflammatory process of Hansen's disease, even when treated, may be followed by secondary glaucoma. We recommend that all patients with Hansen's disease receive regular periodic examinations, including slit-lamp biomicroscopy to detect low-grade iridocyclitis and measurement of intraocular pressure.