A series of 22 patients with crystals in the anterior segment of the eye was examined by specular microscopy. Of 10 patients with hypermature cataract and hyperrefringent bodies in the anterior chamber cholesterol crystals were identified in four patients and in six of the 10 in whom aspirate was obtained cholesterol crystals were demonstrated in three, two of these having shown crystals on specular microscopy. In 10 patients with intracorneal crystalline deposits, cholesterol crystals were found on specular microscopy, including one case of Schnyder's crystalline corneal dystrophy. Of two patients with multiple myeloma, corneal crystals were demonstrated in one. Crystals of the anterior segment of the eye are most likely to be cholesterol, and identification is important for future treatment.