The clinical features, treatment, and visual outcome of 52 eyes from 43 patients who developed scleritis following surgery were reviewed. In all patients the scleral inflammation developed adjacent to a surgical wound. Ninety six per cent had necrotising disease and 23% also had evidence of secondary posterior scleritis. Many different types of ocular surgery were implicated and the majority (75%) of the patients had two or more surgical procedures before the onset of the scleritis. Although cataract extraction through a limbal incision resulted in the largest subgroup, scleritis also followed glaucoma, strabismus, and retinal detachment surgery. The latent period between surgery and the appearance of inflammation was short (mean 9 months) except for a small group in whom scleritis occurred many years after squint surgery. Sixty three per cent of patients had evidence of a systemic disease. Early diagnosis and aggressive medical treatment significantly improved the visual outcome. The precipitating factors, pathogenesis, and course of this condition are discussed.