Of 57 patients with chronic renal failure and calcification of the anterior membranes of the eye eight developed inflammatory reactions, clinically indistinguishable from pingueculitis. In three patients an acute inflammatory reaction of the episcleral tissue and the conjunctiva over it developed which we considered to represent the red eye of renal failure. In these patients massive shedding of calcium phosphate salts was clinically evident. Histopathologically in all these patients calcific deposits were observed. Although sporadically polymorphonuclear leucocytes were present in the inflamed tissues we could not demonstrate crystal phagocytosis. We believe that in the red eyes in renal failure and, more specifically, in the red eyes of renal failure a crystal induced inflammatory mechanism is not operative.