The Corneal Transplant Follow up Study has registered 4560 corneal grafts performed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland from July 1987 to June 1991. Rates of reported grafts doubled during that time. This increase was greater for surgeons and regions reporting fewer grafts, but was consistent across patient factors. Eleven of 428 consultants were responsible for over 25% of grafts, and their patients' characteristics differed significantly from others. Overall, reasons for grafting were visual only (77%), visual and other (16%), and non-visual (7%). Most frequent diagnoses were endothelial failure (38%), inflammation (26%), and keratoconus (20%). Age ranged from 2 months to 97 years, and differed markedly with diagnosis. Eighteen per cent of transplants were regrafts, and 40% were vascularised preoperatively.