A lysine to glutamic acid substitution at codon 296 in the rhodopsin gene has been reported in a family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. This mutation is of particular functional interest as this lysine molecule is the binding site of 11-cis-retinal. The clinical features of a family with this mutation have not been reported previously. We examined 14 patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa and a lysine-296-glutamic acid rhodopsin mutation. Four had detailed psychophysical and electrophysiological testing. Most affected subjects had severe disease with poor night vision from early life, and marked reduction of visual acuity and visual field by their early forties. Psychophysical testing showed no demonstrable rod function and severely reduced cone function in all patients tested.