A corneal disc, obtained from a 52-year-old woman suffering from an early stage of the iridocorneal endothelial syndrome (ICE), was investigated by various morphological techniques to analyse the structural variations in the endothelial cells and to identify the collagen types within the abnormal layer of Descemet's membrane. Scanning electron microscopy of the posterior corneal surface revealed a mosaic of (a) flat hexagonal cells resembling irregular but normal endothelial cells, and (b) rounded hexagonal (ICE) cells with numerous surface microvilli. Degenerative changes were present in each cell type, but were more common in the flat hexagonal cells which contained intracytoplasmic spaces. By transmission electron microscopy the flat hexagonal cells exhibited many of the features of normal endothelial cells in terms of organelles and intercellular attachments, but lateral invaginations were absent. The ICE cells differed in that the apical surface was covered by microvilli and the cytoplasm contained tonofilaments, which were also observed by light microscopic immunocytochemical staining. Most commonly, intercellular attachments were rudimentary in both types of cell and intercellular spaces were dilated, but desmosomes were sometimes prominent in the ICE cells where interdigitations were pronounced. In some sectors, the basal surface of the ICE cells was indented by deposition of clumps of fibrillar collagenous material. An immunocytochemical study of the abnormal posterior deposits localised type IV collagen to the amorphous matrix and collagen types III and V, but not type I, to the collagen fibril bundles. Mononuclear inflammatory cells were identified between the ICE cells in the monolayer. The evidence suggests that some of the flat hexagonal cells were undergoing a degenerative change while others were transforming into ICE cells.