AIMS/BACKGROUND: To investigate histological changes in the trabecular meshwork in eyes with neovascular glaucoma. METHODS: Light and electron microscopic studies were carried out on the trabecular meshwork of three enucleated eyes with neovascular glaucoma. The presence and distribution of factor VIII in the trabecular meshwork was assessed using the ABC method. RESULTS: Peripheral anterior synechiae covering the trabecular meshwork were detected in two eyes, which would explain the rise in intraocular pressure. In the third the angle was not completely closed by peripheral anterior synechiae. The spaces between the trabecular beams were lined by a single layer of vascular endothelium, and were filled with red blood cells in this patient. Factor VIII was positively stained in the endothelial cells, lining both these spaces and Schlemm's canal. A basal lamina and microfibrils were detected just beneath the newly formed vascular endothelial cells. CONCLUSION: The neovascular tissue found in the trabecular spaces might be one of the factors responsible for intraocular pressure elevation in eyes with neovascular glaucoma.