Prevalence and risk factors associated with dry eye symptoms: a population based study in Indonesia
- 1Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore, 16 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597, Republic of Singapore
- 2Singapore National Eye Centre, (SNEC), 11 Third Hospital Avenue, and Singapore Eye Research Institute, (SERI), 5th Level, SNEC, 11 Third Hospital Avenue, Singapore 168751, Republic of Singapore
- 3The Institute of Ophthalmology, 11–43 Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, UK
- 4PT Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper, Kerinci, Indonesia
- 5Department of Ophthalmology, National University of Singapore
- Correspondence to: Dr Seang-Mei Saw, Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore, 16 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597, Republic of Singapore;
- Accepted 3 July 2002
Aim: To determine the prevalence and identify associated risk factors for dry eye syndrome in a population in Sumatra, Indonesia.
Methods: A one stage cluster sampling procedure was conducted to randomly select 100 households in each of the five rural villages and one provincial town of the Riau province, Indonesia, from April to June 2001. Interviewers collected demographic, lifestyle, and medical data from 1058 participants aged 21 years or over. Symptoms of dry eye were assessed using a six item validated questionnaire. Presence of one or more of the six dry eye symptoms often or all the time was analysed. Presence of pterygium was documented.
Results: Prevalence of one or more of the six dry eye symptoms often or all the time adjusted for age was 27.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 24.8 to 30.2). After adjusting for all significant variables, independent risk factors for dry eye were pterygium (p<0.001, multivariate odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.5) and a history of current cigarette smoking (p=0.05, multivariate OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.2).
Conclusions: This population based study provides prevalence rates of dry eye symptoms in a tropical developing nation. From our findings, pterygium is a possible independent risk factor for dry eye symptoms.
Series editors: W V Good and S Ruit