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Associated factors for age related maculopathy in the adult population in China: the Beijing eye study
  1. L Xu1,
  2. Y Li1,
  3. Y Zheng1,
  4. J B Jonas2
  1. 1Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital and Capital University of Medical Science, Beijing, China
  2. 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Clinical Medicine Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany
  1. Correspondence to: Dr J Jonas Universitäts-Augenklinik, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim, Germany; jost.jonas{at}augen.ma.uni-heidelberg.de

Abstract

Background: To evaluate factors associated with the prevalence of age related maculopathy (ARM) in the adult Chinese population.

Methods: The Beijing Eye Study, a population based prevalence study, included 4439 out of 5324 subjects from a rural area and an urban region of greater Beijing, aged 40+ years and invited to participate (response rate 83.4%). Fundus photographs were graded using the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading system. The following parameters were graded: drusen size, drusen type, and the area covered by drusen; pigmentary abnormalities; geographic atrophy; and exudative ARM.

Results: Fundus photographs were available for 8655 eyes of 4376 (98.6%) subjects. Early age related macular degeneration (ARD), late ARD, and exudative ARD, respectively, were present in 1.4%, 0.20%, and 0.10% of the subjects. In a binary logistic regression analysis, early ARM was statistically associated with age (p<0.001; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.08), hyperopic refractive error (p = 0.008; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.28), rural region (p<0.001; 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.49), and lower level of education (p = 0.01; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.65). Early ARM was not significantly associated with the optic disc size (p = 0.42), and size of beta zone of peripapillary atrophy (p = 0.28), the self reported diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.39; OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 0.66 to 2.85), amount of cortical cataract (p = 0.72), subcapsular cataract (p = 0.98), nuclear cataract (p = 0.26), sex (p = 0.23), cataract surgery (p = 1.0; OR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.13 to 6.95), glaucomatous optic nerve damage (p = 0.77; OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.15 to 2.52), and history of smoking (p = 0.66; OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.65 to 2.00).

Conclusions: Hyperopic refractive error besides age was the single most important risk factor for ARM in adult Chinese. Other associated factors were rural region and lower level of education.

  • ARD, age related macular degeneration
  • ARM, age related maculopathy
  • age related macular degeneration
  • diabetes mellitus
  • visual impairment
  • low vision
  • visual field loss
  • blindness
  • ARD, age related macular degeneration
  • ARM, age related maculopathy
  • age related macular degeneration
  • diabetes mellitus
  • visual impairment
  • low vision
  • visual field loss
  • blindness

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Footnotes

  • Source of funding: Beijing Key Laboratory Funding.

  • Proprietary interest: none.

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