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Retinoscopy and autorefraction are frequently used as starting-points for, or alternatives to, subjective refraction. Although results may be similar,1 retinoscopy may be the preferable technique.2 Unlike an autorefractor, a retinoscope and trial case are relatively inexpensive, robust and virtually maintenance-free. Thus, retinoscopy is eminently suitable for use in low-resource countries.
However, mastering retinoscopy can be challenging, and perfecting the technique takes considerable practice. The range of refractive errors available is limited if practice is restricted to using colleagues and refraction clinic patients. Additionally, the goodwill of “real” patients may be tested by protracted examinations typical of neophyte retinoscopists. A model eye capable of simulating axial and refractive ametropias and ocular …