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Clinical science
Clinical characteristics, diagnostic criteria and therapeutic outcomes in autoimmune optic neuropathy
  1. L Frohman1,2,
  2. K DellaTorre1,
  3. R Turbin1,
  4. L Bielory1,3,4
  1. 1
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, UMDNJ—New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA
  2. 2
    Department of Neurology and Neurosciences, UMDNJ—New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA
  3. 3
    Department of Medicine, UMDNJ—New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA
  4. 4
    Department of Pediatrics, UMDNJ—New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr L Frohman, 90 Bergen Street, Newark, NJ 07103, USA; frohman{at}umdnj.edu

Abstract

Background/aims: Autoimmune optic neuropathy (AON) is characterised by chronically progressive or recurrent visual loss associated with serological or cutaneous evidence of autoimmunity, without a defined systemic autoimmune illness. It may improve with large doses of corticosteroids alone, or in combination with immunosuppressive agents. The aim was to determine the relative effectiveness of various therapeutic regimens in AON.

Methods: All patients in this study fulfilled these criteria: (1) multiple attacks in one eye or attacks in both eyes (at least three total attacks); (2) a minimum of 12 months of neuro-ophthalmic follow-up; (3) serological abnormalities or skin biopsy changes consistent with AON; (4) no diagnosis of a defined collagen vascular disease or neurological autoimmune disease throughout follow-up, with the exception of one patient, later shown to be shown to be neuromyelitis optic antibody positive.

Results: Nine cases were found (female = 7, male = 2, ages 8–74). One case received corticosteroids alone, the others received corticosteroids in combination with methotrexate/gammaglobulin (n = 1), methotrexate (n = 1), gammaglobulin (n = 1), chlorambucil (n = 2), cyclophosphamide (n = 1) and azathioprine/chlorambucil (n = 1), and one received multiple combinations of agents. Criteria for diagnosis are proposed.

Conclusion: As AON is quite rare, no formal recommendation can be made regarding its best therapy, although there is a suggestion that chlorambucil, although potentially toxic, may yield long-term remission.

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Footnotes

  • Funding Supported by an unrestricted grant from Research to Prevent Blindness, Inc, and the Lions Eye Research Foundation of New Jersey.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval Ethics approval was provided by New Jersey Medical School IRB.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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