The pathogenesis of acute and recurrent anterior uveitis is poorly understood. Here, recent evidence is presented for the hypothesis that this disease may be associated with activation of receptors of the innate immune system, such as Toll-like receptors, by pathogen associated molecule patterns, such as lipopolysaccharide, derived from triggering gram negative bacteria. Acute anterior uveitis results in ocular tissue damage and the release of endogenous molecules (damage associated molecular patterns), such as heat shock proteins and S100 proteins that can also activate Toll-like receptors and thus perpetuate or reactivate intraocular inflammation.
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Funding NHMRC Australia.
Competing interests None.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.