Epidemiological and virological features of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis due to new human adenovirus type 54 in Japan
- Hisatoshi Kaneko1,
- Tatsuo Suzutani1,
- Koki Aoki2,
- Nobuyoshi Kitaichi2,
- Susumu Ishida2,
- Hiroaki Ishiko3,
- Tsutomu Ohashi4,
- Shigeki Okamoto5,
- Hisashi Nakagawa6,
- Rikutaro Hinokuma7,
- Yoshimori Asato8,
- Shinobu Oniki9,
- Teiko Hashimoto10,
- Tomohiro Iida11,
- Shigeaki Ohno12
- 1Department of Microbiology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, Japan
- 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
- 3Host Defense Laboratory, Mitsubishi Chemical Medience Corporation, Tokyo, Japan
- 4Ohashi Eye Clinic, Sapporo Japan
- 5Okamoto Eye Clinic, Matsuyama, Japan
- 6Tokushima Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan
- 7Hinokuma Eye Clinic, Kumamoto, Japan
- 8Asato Eye Clinic, Itoman, Japan
- 9Oniki Eye Clinic, Chikushino, Japan
- 10Sakuramizu Sakai Eye Clinic, Fukushima, Japan
- 11Department of Ophthalmology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, Japan
- 12Department of Ocular Inflammation and Immunology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
- Correspondence to Dr Hisatoshi Kaneko, Department of Microbiology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, 1 Hikarigaoka, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan;
- Accepted 20 March 2010
- Published Online First 8 June 2010
Background/aims New human adenovirus (HAdV)-54 causes epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) and is virologically close to and has occasionally been detected as HAdV-8. Taking HAdV-54 into account, we re-determined HAdV type in EKC samples to determine its epidemiology in Japan, and examined the virological features of HAdV-54.
Methods HAdV type was re-determined in 776 conjunctival swabs from Japan and 174 from six other countries, obtained between 2000 and 2009. Using 115 HAdV strains obtained before 1999, trends regarding HAdV-8 and HAdV-54 were also determined. In addition, immunochromatography (IC) kit features, DNA copy numbers and viral isolation of HAdV-54 in samples were evaluated.
Results Recently, HAdV-37 and HAdV-54 have been the major causative types of EKC in Japan. HAdV-54 has been isolated each year since 1995, whereas HAdV-8 has become less common since 1997, although it remains the most common cause of EKC in the six other countries investigated where HAdV-54 is yet to be detected. HAdV-54 is comparable to other EKC-related HAdV types in terms of IC kit sensitivity and DNA copy numbers, although HAdV-54 grows more slowly on viral isolation.
Conclusions EKC due to HAdV-54 can result in epidemics; therefore, it should be accurately diagnosed and monitored as an emerging infection worldwide.
- Human adenovirus
- human adenovirus type 54
- epidemic keratoconjunctivitis
Competing interests None.
Patient consent Obtained.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.