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Incorrect study design and analysis: effect of isometric exercise on choroidal blood flow in patients with age-related macular degeneration
  1. Gerald McGwin Jr1,2
  1. 1Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
  2. 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
  1. Correspondence to Gerald McGwin Jr, Departments of Epidemiology and Ophthalmology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 609 Eye Foundation Hospital, 1720 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294; USA; mcgwin{at}uab.edu

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The recently published study by Metelitsina et al1 is described as a cross-sectional study; however, this is incorrect. In cross-sectional studies, study participants are selected without regard to either exposure (ie, risk factor) or disease (ie, outcome) status. In the current …

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