Keratoconus is an ectatic corneal dystrophy and is a leading indication for corneal transplantation surgery worldwide. The disease was first described in detail more than 150 years ago by Dr John Nottingham, but the understanding of the disease and its management have undergone significant changes over the last few decades. Corneal specialists have adopted new techniques and technologies for the effective management of keratoconus, while adhering to the age-old concepts of contact lens fitting and penetrating keratoplasty. Lamellar keratoplasty has been revived with improved outcomes and devices such as intracorneal ring segments are being used to treat cases of early keratoconus effectively. This review article discusses the current scenario on the surgical as well as non-surgical management of keratoconus with a focus on the established, novel and emerging treatment modalities.
- surgical management
- penetrating keratoplasty
- lamellar keratoplasty
- deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty
- contact lens
- corneal collagen cross linking
- intracorneal ring segments
- excimer laser
- treatment surgery
- treatment medical
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Competing interests None to declare.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.