The use of punctal plugs in children
- 1Clinical and Academic Department of Ophthalmology, Great Ormond St Hospital for Children, London, UK
- 2IInd Department Ophthalmology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
- 3Developmental Biology Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
- 4UPMC Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh and Eye Center, Pittsburgh PA
- Correspondence to Dr Ken K Nischal, UPMC Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh and Eye Center, 4401 Penn Avenue, Pittsburgh Pa 15224, USA;
Contributors All authors contributed to the design, data collection and writing of the paper.
- Accepted 25 September 2011
- Published Online First 22 October 2011
Background/aims To evaluate the safety and efficacy of punctal plugs in children with dry eye syndrome.
Methods A retrospective case series of patients who had an insertion of silicone punctal plugs for dry eye syndrome. Data collected included presenting symptoms, signs, systemic disorders if present, type of anaesthesia and complications by the time of last follow-up.
Results Twenty-five patients (median age at insertion 7 years, range 1.5–13.8 years) were identified. Median follow-up was 18 months. The commonest symptoms were photophobia, soreness and blepharospasm, and the commonest sign was punctate epithelial erosions. Concurrent systemic disease was present in 18/25 patients. Repeated procedures were carried out in eight of 25 patients. Twenty-four of 35 insertions were performed under general anaesthesia. A substantial improvement in ocular surface disease was noted in all cases: frequency of lubricant use was reduced in eight of 25 and visual acuity improved in 15/25 patients. Spontaneous extrusion was the commonest complication and occurred within 6 months in 19% of cases.
Conclusion Dry eye syndrome in children is often accompanied by systemic disease, so in a child with persistent symptoms this should be explored. Punctal plugs offer a safe and effective form of treatment especially as compliance of frequent lubrication is limited in children.
- Child health (paediatrics)
- embryology and development
- eye (globe)
- ocular surface disease
- punctal plugs
- stem cells
Competing interests None.
Ethics approval Ethics approval was provided by Great Ormond Street Hospital.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.