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Original article
Validation of a short version of the glaucoma medication self-efficacy questionnaire
  1. Betsy Sleath1,2,
  2. Susan J Blalock2,
  3. Jennifer L Stone3,
  4. Asheley Cockrell Skinner4,
  5. David Covert5,
  6. Kelly Muir6,
  7. Alan L Robin7,8,9
  1. 1Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
  2. 2Division of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
  3. 3Glaucoma Specialists, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
  4. 4Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
  5. 5Alcon Research, Ltd, Fort Worth, Texas, USA
  6. 6Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
  7. 7Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
  8. 8Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
  9. 9University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Betsy Sleath, Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, Division of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, CB # 7590, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7590, USA; betsy_sleath{at}unc.edu

Abstract

Aims The aims of this study were: (1) to examine whether the original glaucoma medication adherence and eye drop technique self-efficacy scales could be shortened for easier use in practice settings; and (2) to validate these scales against objective medication adherence measures.

Methods Prospective study conducted at a single private practice site. We measured subjects' adherence to glaucoma medications through Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) devices and assessed eye drop instillation technique by video-recording. Principal components factor analysis and logistic and linear regression were used to analyse the data.

Results Our results yielded a 10-item Glaucoma Medication Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale that was strongly associated with subject adherence measured using MEMS (β coefficient 8.52, 95% CI 1.94 to 15.1). In addition, the six-item Eye Drop Technique Self-Efficacy Scale was strongly associated with video-recorded subject eye drop installation technique (OR 10.47, 95% CI 1.78 to 61.63).

Conclusions Eye care providers and researchers could use these shorter scales to identify subjects with either poor glaucoma medication adherence and/or eye drop instillation technique. This could help to identify those who may benefit most from education and training on both adherence and eye drop instillation.

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Footnotes

  • Funding Funding was provided by Alcon Research, Ltd. BS was also supported by grant EY018400 from the National Eye Institute and by grant UL 1RR02574 7 from the National Center of Research Resources, NIH.

  • Competing interests None to declare.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval of the Southwest Independent Institutional Review Board.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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