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How much of invasive clinical research is still ethically justified?
  1. Andrzej Grzybowski1,2
  1. 1Medical Faculty, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland
  2. 2Head of the Department of Ophthalmology, Poznań City Hospital, Poland
  1. Correspondence to Professor Andrzej Grzybowski, Department of Ophthalmology, Poznań City Hospital, Poland, Szwajcarska 3, 61-285 Poznań; ae.grzybowski{at}

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Two research studies published in BJO1 ,2 were based on invasive procedures. The previous similar studies were conducted in China and related ethical concerns were reported.3 ,4 Although the discussed studies were conducted in Europe, they raise similar concerns. Both studies were conducted by the same research group and were based on the same studied group of patients: 18 patients with normal-tension glaucoma who underwent cisternography with lumbar puncture (LP). Control group constituted age- and gender-matched individuals without known intracranial or optic nerve disease who underwent CT …

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