Aims To estimate the cumulative incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis, identify risk factors and determine clinical outcomes in China.
Methods Medical records were reviewed for all patients with acute-onset endophthalmitis after cataract surgery from January 2006 to December 2011 at eight eye centres of tertiary care hospitals in China.
Results Sixty-six cases of presumed endophthalmitis occurred after 201 757 cataract surgeries, yielding a cumulative incidence of 0.033% (95% CI 0.025 to 0.041). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of endophthalmitis increased with intraoperative communication with vitreous (multivariate OR 9.96; 95% CI 4.54 to 21.84; p<0.001). After a median follow-up of 153 days, best-corrected visual acuity in the affected eye was more than 20/70 in 29/65 (44.6%) patients, and more than 20/40 in 20/65 (30.8%). A predictor of good visual acuity was baseline acuity of counting fingers or better (OR 6.25; 95% CI 2.13 to 18.33). Of 64 cases, 25 (39.1%) were culture positive. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas species were the most common organisms isolated, accounting for 72.0% of the culture-positive cases (18/25). Two eye centres that used a combination of a high concentration vancomycin (1 mg/0.1 mL intracameral vancomycin injection or 100 µg/mL vancomycin in irrigating solution) and tobramycin as infection prophylaxis achieved a lower incidence of endophthalmitis than other centres (p<0.001).
Conclusions The incidence of acute postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in tertiary care hospitals of China was 0.033%. Intraoperative communication with vitreous was a major risk factor for developing endophthalmitis. Prophylactic use of a high-concentration vancomycin and tobramycin may play a positive role in the prevention of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.
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