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  1. Keith Barton,
  2. James Chodosh,
  3. Jost Jonas

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Chronic disease provides a huge burden on eye care resources. Blanchet et al1 discuss the challenges that will be required to achieve the goals of Vision 2020 (see page 1325).

Wang et al2 report a prospective randomised trial in which they observed that in 45 children with convergency insufficiency-type intermittent exotropia, the success rate in terms of alignment at 6 months after surgery was significantly higher (87.5%) in the improved recess resect procedure (medial rectus resection based on the near deviation and lateral rectus recession based on the distant deviation) than in groups who underwent unilateral or bilateral medial rectus recessions (13.3% and 42.9% respectively) (see page 1409).

Goh et al3, in a retrospective review of children registered with the Low vision Educational Network in New Zealand observed Optic Nerve Hypoplasia in 6.3% but with a significant over-representation in children of Maori ethnicity and low maternal age. Pituitary hormone deficiency and developmental delay were common among these children (see page 1364).

Mody et al4 describe the clinical characteristics of 35 immunocompetent patients with ocular aspergillosis, advising that the diagnosis should be kept in mind in young immunocompetent individuals presenting with proptosis of insidious onset and infiltrating lesions involving the paranasal sinuses. Systemic steroids should be avoided prior to a definitive diagnosis (see page 1379).

Fili et al5 examined the influence on ruthenium-106 brachytherapy dose rate on the ocular outcome in 962 patients in Sweden between 1979 and 2012. Although dose rates ranged widely, they observed no association with the the frequency of secondary enucleation (see page 1349).

Fonseca et al6 report the visual outcomes in 33 eyes with pseudotumour cerebri, papilloedema and severe vision loss who underwent either optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) (14 patients) or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt (19 patients). Visual acuity and mean deviation improved in both groups (see page 1360).

Frost et al7 report the effect of rounding of visual acuity scores (rounding of partially read Snellen lines) on estimates of individual surgeons' success rates in a virtual database of endothelial keratoplasties with Snellen visual acuities. Rounding of visual acuity data was observed to have a notable effect on estimates of surgeons' success rates. The authors conclude that rounding of visual acuity scores is an important potential source of bias in outcome data and shold be avoided. If rounding is required, they recommend that credit is given only for lines that are read completely (see page 1385).

Klettner et al8 report the effect of Afibercept on RPE cells in tissue culture, confirming prior findings of lack of toxicity but also observing a reduction in phagocytic activity and impairment of wound healing capacity (see page 1448).

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