Aim To evaluate corneal elevation, pachymetry and keratometry in keratoconic eyes according to the clinical stage of the disease.
Methods This prospective comparative study was performed on one hundred and twenty-six eyes of 83 patients who had keratoconus, and 42 normal eyes of 42 age-matched subjects. Corneal elevation, pachymetry and keratometry were measured using a rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam HR, Oculus) in these eyes. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves was used to analyse the diagnostic significance of these parameters, with respect to each stage of Amsler-Krumeich classifications. AUROC was calculated to describe the predictive accuracy of the different indices and to determine the cut-off points where sensitivity and specificity were maximised.
Results Posterior (0.980) and anterior (0.977) elevation differences showed the highest AUROCs, followed by dioptres (D) value (0.941), percentage thickness increase (PTI) 2 mm (0.931), PTI 4 mm (0.927), progression index (0.927), minimal pachymetry (0.923), average keratometry (0.914), anterior elevation (0.909), PTI 6 mm (0.906), posterior elevation (0.898), central pachymetry (0.889), PTI 8 mm (0.870), PTI 10 mm (0.864), corneal thickness spatial profile 2 mm (0.835) and cylinder (0.796). The differences in AUROC curves between anterior and posterior elevation difference measurements and other diagnostic parameters tended to be larger at the earlier stages of keratoconus.
Conclusions Anterior and posterior corneal surface height data obtained by enhanced ectasia display, effectively discriminates keratoconus from normal corneas. Elevation difference measurements may provide useful information for improving the diagnostic accuracy of keratoconus, especially in the early stage of the disease.