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Although cavernous malformations tend to be isolated, they are not exclusively localised to the orbit. Similar lesions have been described in a variety of sites including the liver and the skin.1 ,2 Recently, we have described the clincopathophysiological nature of orbital cavernous malformations.3 The purpose of this follow-up investigation is to extend these findings to lesions of the liver and skin.
We examined four representative, consecutive cases with a pathological diagnosis of cavernous malformation found in the liver, skin and orbit, respectively. A total of 12 cases were reviewed. All slides were stained as previously described.3
Morphological analysis revealed flat, mature vascular endothelium staining uniformly for CD31 without elastic lamina in all specimens. Vascular spaces were arranged in a back-to-back fashion, giving all cases a classic cavernous malformation appearance (figure 1A–C).