Aim: To report complications and 2-year valve survival following Ahmed valve implantation during the first 2 years of life.
Methods: Retrospective institutional case series.
Results: Forty-two eyes of 36 patients with Ahmed valve implantation (without prior drainage device surgery) during the first 2 years of life and 2-years’ post-surgical follow-up were identified. Most eyes had primary congenital glaucoma (28/42, 66.7%), aphakic glaucoma (5/42, 11.9%), or Peters anomaly (5/42, 11.9%). All but 3 eyes had prior ocular surgery. Surgery was at a mean age of 11.83 months (m) [standard deviation (SD) 5.63]. The most common significant post-operative complications were tube malpositioning requiring intervention (11/42, 26.2%), endophthalmitis (3/42, 7.1%; one with tube exposure), and retinal detachment (3/42, 7.1%). Thirty-six eyes (85.8%) required resumption of anti-glaucoma medications to maintain intraocular pressure (IOP) <= 22 mm Hg a mean 7.2 m (SD 6.8) post-operatively. Cumulative probabilities of valve survival (IOP<= 22 mm Hg with or without medication) by Kaplan-Meier analysis were 73.8% and 63.3% at 12 months and 24 months, respectively.
Conclusions: Post-operative tube malpositioning that required surgical revision was common in this age group. Infectious endophthalmitis and retinal detachment are known potential complications following any incisional surgery for advanced buphthalmos; however, tube exposure is a unique potential problem following aqueous shunt implantation that can lead to intraocular infection. Cumulative valve survival 2 years following implantation was 63.3%.