Background: To assess prevalence, potential risk factors and population attributable risk percentage (PAR) for age-related maculopathy (ARM) in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Methods: A population-based study, cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India during 1996 and 2000. A total of 10293 participants underwent a detailed interview and a detailed dilated ocular evaluation. In this report the authors present the prevalence estimates of ARM and its association with potential risk factors in persons aged 40 - 102 years (n = 3,723). ARM was defined as per the international classification and grading system.
Results: ARM was present in 327 subjects, an age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence of 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1% - 9.9%). Multivariate analysis showed that, the adjusted prevalence of ARM was significantly higher in those 70 years of age or older (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.65; 95% CI, 2.24-5.94) and in subjects with hypertension OR, 1.30 (95% CI: 1.02 – 1.65). Presence of any cataract and urban residence were significantly associated with increased prevalence of ARM (OR, 1.67; 95% CI: 1.27 – 2.21 and 2.30; 95% CI: 1.79 – 2.96) respectively. Increased intraocular pressure (IOP), and increased cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) were also significantly associated with increased prevalence of ARM (OR, 1.03; 95% CI: 1.002 – 1.06 and 2.25; 95% CI: 1.10 – 4.67) respectively. The PAR for hypertension and any cataract was 12% and 18% respectively in this population.
Conclusion: The prevalence of ARM in this south Indian population is similar to the ones reported from other developed countries. Increased age, increased IOP and increased CDR were significantly associated with the increased risk of ARM.