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Increased hyperopia with ageing based on cycloplegic refractions in adults: the Tehran Eye Study
  1. Hassan Hashemi1,
  2. Rafael Iribarren2,
  3. Ian G Morgan3,
  4. Mehdi Khabazkhoob4,
  5. Kazem Mohammad5,
  6. Akbar Fotouhi5
  1. 1 Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, Islamic Republic of;
  2. 2 Department of Ophthalmology, San Luis Medical Center, Argentina;
  3. 3 ARC Centre of Excellence in Vision Science, School of Biology, Australian National University, Australia;
  4. 4 Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Noor Eye Hospital, Iran, Islamic Republic of;
  5. 5 Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sci, Iran, Islamic Republic of
  1. * Corresponding author; email: afotouhi{at}


Aim: To determine the trend in the prevalence of hyperopia in Tehran, Iran.

Methods: Using a stratified random cluster sample of the population of Tehran, all participants 5 years of age and older were studied with cycloplegic autorefraction thirty minutes after instilling two drops of cyclopentolate 1%. Prevalence rates of cycloplegic hyperopia for different cut points were determined, stratified by age.

Results: The prevalence rates of hyperopia as a spherical equivalent equal to or more than +0.5, +1.0, +2.0, and +3.0 diopters were 56.6 %, 28.1%, 6.3% and 2.2%, respectively. With all these definitions, the prevalence of cycloplegic hyperopia reached a minimum in the 25-35 year age group, and then significantly increased until the age of 70. Multivariable regression analysis with variables such as age, gender, diabetes, and cataract showed that only age was significantly correlated with hyperopia.

Conclusions: Although an age-cohort effect cannot be ruled out, these results provide the first population-based evidence of increasing hyperopia with age using cycloplegic refraction. The results obtained suggest that the contribution of decreasing accommodation to observed hyperopic shifts in distance refraction in longitudinal studies is small, raising the question of the underling causes of the hyperopic shift in refraction with age.

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