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Br J Ophthalmol doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2011-300910
  • Clinical science

Risk factors for anxiety and depression in patients with glaucoma

  1. Shigeo Tsukahara1
  1. 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, Japan
  2. 2Department of Health Policy and Management, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
  3. 3Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, Japan
  4. 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Fumihiko Mabuchi, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, 1110 Shimokato, Chuo, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan; fmabuchi{at}yamanashi.ac.jp
  1. Contributors FM: (1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article; (3) final approval of the version to be published. KY and ZY: (1) analysis and interpretation of data; (2) revising it critically for important intellectual content; (3) final approval of the version to be published. KK and HI: (1) acquisition of data; (2) revising it critically for important intellectual content; (3) final approval of the version to be published. SK and ST: (1) substantial contributions to conception and design; (2) revising it critically for important intellectual content; (3) final approval of the version to be published.

  • Accepted 23 January 2012
  • Published Online First 21 February 2012

Abstract

Aim To assess the risk factors for anxiety and depression in patients with glaucoma.

Methods Anxiety and depression in 408 patients with glaucoma were evaluated using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) questionnaire, which consists of two subscales, representing HADS-anxiety (HADS-A) and HADS-depression (HADS-D). To identify the risk factors for anxiety and depression, the stepwise and multiple linear regression analyses were carried out with the HADS-A and HADS-D subscores as dependent variables and demographic and clinical features as independent variables.

Results A stepwise linear regression analysis revealed the significantly related factors to be age for HADS-A (β=−0.046, p=0.0007) and HADS-D (β=0.035, p=0.011) and the mean deviation of the Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer 30-2 (HFA30-2) in the better eye for HADS-D (β=−0.095, p=0.0026). Based on multiple linear regression analyses, significant relationships were confirmed between age and the HADS-A subscore (β=−0.046, p=0.0008). Significant relationships were also confirmed between age (β=0.037, p=0.0077) or the mean deviation of HFA30-2 in the better eye (β=−0.094, p=0.0036) and the HADS-D subscore.

Conclusion A younger age was thus found to be a risk factor for anxiety, while an older age and increasing glaucoma severity were risk factors for depression in patients with glaucoma.

Footnotes

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval Ethics approval was provided by Ethics Committee of University of Yamanashi.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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