Background/aims To describe in patients diagnosed with intermediate uveitis (IU) the incidence rate (IR) of visual loss and newly diagnosed clinical complications during follow-up. Also, to analyse the influence of baseline complications on visual loss.
Methods Longitudinal retrospective cohort study which included 97 affected eyes of 67 consecutive patients diagnosed with IU according to the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature group, first seen in our clinic between 1986 and 2014, and until loss to follow-up, or 1 January 2015. Kaplan–Meier curves were set to account for temporary and permanent visual loss and development of clinical complications during follow-up. Cox's bivariate and multivariate regression models were constructed to examine the risk factors for visual loss.
Results IRs (in events per 100 eyes-year) for the development of cystic macular oedema (CMO), epiretinal membrane (ERM) and cataracts were 5.9 (3.70–9.4), 1.2 (0.50–2.6) and 6.6 (4.4–10.1), respectively. IRs per 100 eyes-year of temporary moderate and severe visual loss episodes were 43.8 (37.3–51.4) and 6.4 (4.5–9.0), respectively. IR of permanent moderate visual loss was 5.3 (3.3–8.3). After 2 years of follow-up, 21% of eyes had developed a permanent moderate visual loss. Presence at baseline of lower visual acuity was associated with higher IR of temporary visual loss episodes, and CMO was associated with higher IR of temporary moderate visual loss.
Conclusions IU seems to have a favourable long-term prognosis. Permanent visual loss occurs during the first year of the disease. Baseline characteristics could identify patients with a higher risk of poor visual prognosis.