Aims To analyse the characteristics of posterior vortex veins detected in highly myopic eyes by wide-field indocyanine green angiography (ICGA).
Methods One hundred and fifty-eight consecutive patients (302 eyes) with high myopia (myopic refractive error >8.0 dioptres (D) or axial length ≥26.5 mm) were studied. Wide-field ICGA was performed with the Spectralis HRA module.
Results Posterior vortex veins were found in 80 eyes (26%). The prevalence of posterior staphyloma was significantly higher in eyes in which posterior vortex vein was detected than in eyes without posterior vortex vein. The posterior vortex veins were classified into five types according to the site of exit from the eye; around the optic nerve in 28%, in the macular area in 17%, along the border of staphyloma in 6%, along the margin of macular atrophy or large peripapillary conus in 21%, and elsewhere in 28%. In one eye, two posterior vortex veins collected the choroidal venous blood from the entire fundus.
Conclusions Wide-field ICGA can analyse the characteristic features of choroidal blood outflow system through posterior vortex veins in highly myopic eyes. They may play an important role as routes of choroidal outflow in highly myopic eyes.
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Contributors MM: design of the work, the acquisition, analysis, of data and draft the work; KO-M: design of the work, drafting the work and revising it critically with final approval of the version to be published; KC: the acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data; SO: the acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data.
Funding Supported in part by research grant 15H04993 and 15K15629 by the Japanese Society for Promotion of Science.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent Obtained.
Ethics approval The ethical committee of Tokyo Medical and Dental University.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data sharing statement This article contains additional online-only material. The following should appear online-only: figure 1.