Table 3

Demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with significant myopia

VariableNoSignificant myopia (%)Prevalence ratioConfidence interval (95%)p Value*
*Pearson’s χ2 test for heterogeneity.
†Fisher’s exact test.
    Female10307.21.61.2 to 2.20.004
Age (years)
    11–1318514.12.71.8 to 4.2<0.001
    17+10904.70.90.6 to 1.30.580
Ethnic group
        South-Asian14117.03.62.4 to 5.4<0.001
        Arab4010.02.10.8 to 5.50.124†
        White425.05.31.0 to 29.10.178†
        Mixed687.41.60.7 to 3.70.321
    Total25313.42.82.0 to 4.1<0.001
Father’s occupation
    Unskilled work3573.11.0
    Skilled work4935.71.80.9 to 3.70.074
    Trading6847.02.31.2 to 4.30.009
    Professional7606.12.01.0 to 3.80.035
    Unknown or dead2173.71.20.5 to 2.90.692
Mother’s occupation
    Unskilled work3164.41.0
    Skilled work2565.91.30.7 to 2.70.439
    Trading4823.30.80.4 to 1.50.420
    Professional4504.21.00.5 to 1.90.889
    Housewife9447.71.81.0 to 3.10.045
    Unknown or dead636.41.40.5 to 4.20.385
Father’s education
    Secondary or less12314.71.0
    Post-secondary9247.41.61.1 to 2.20.009
    Unknown or dead3564.20.90.5 to 1.60.698
Mother’s education
    Primary or none12244.61.0
    Secondary5307.41.61.1 to 2.40.018
    Post-secondary5716.81.51.0 to 2.20.047
    Unknown or dead1863.80.80.4 to 1.80.618
Parents speak English
    Father only8855.41.50.9 to 2.50.105
    Mother only1584.41.20.5 to 2.90.616
    Both8997.42.11.3 to 3.40.003
    Unknown or dead90.00.01.000†
Parents own a:
        yes7037.51.61.1 to 2.20.009
        yes17006.51.71.2 to 2.50.007
        yes2279.71.91.2 to 2.90.005
Parents have use of a:
        yes10467.11.61.1 to 2.10.007
        yes20455.00.60.4 to 0.90.008
        yes4856.81.30.9 to 1.90.205
    Provided free
        yes2459.01.71.1 to 2.60.016
Sibling(s) with spectacles:
    yes5708.11.71.2 to 2.40.002
    No siblings2516.03.41.3 to 8.50.031†