|Factor||Number of study populations||Adjusted odds ratio*|
(95% credible interval)
|Per decade in whites||34||0.85 (0.69, 1.05)|
|Per decade in East Asians||65||1.23 (1.00, 1.55)|
|Per decade in South Asians||23||1.05 (0.45, 2.63)|
|Urban||115||2.61 (1.79, 3.86)|
|Mixed†||12||2.71 (1.63, 4.68)|
|Study design characteristics|
|Cycloplegia—no||43||2.12 (1.76, 2.52)|
|Closed field autorefraction||54||2.18 (1.79, 2.73)|
|Open field autorefraction||12||1.30 (0.89, 1.85)|
*ORs are the medians (95% credible intervals in parenthesis) of the posterior distributions from the Bayesian multilevel binomial logistic regression of the log odds of myopia adjusting for ethnic specific associations with age, ethnic specific associations with survey year (for white, East Asian and South Asian children, only) and environmental setting. The multilevel model took into account that some study populations provide only one age-specific estimate whereas others contribute data for several age groups. ORs for the study design characteristics are based on a subset of studies that specifically reported whether cycloplegia was used. ORs for environmental setting and study design characteristics were assumed to be common across ethnicities.
†Mixed refers to studies that reported myopia prevalence for urban and rural groups combined.