Table 2

Association with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) assessed using multivariate linear regression models with generalised estimating equations (n=3188 persons; 6376 eyes)

Characteristics

Change in IOP (mm Hg)

β (95% CI)

Model 1†

Model 2‡*

Age, per 5 years

−0.02 (−0.07 to 0.03)

−0.07 (−0.13 to −0.01)*

Gender, female

0.46 (0.29 to 0.64)**

0.35 (0.12 to 0.58)*

Ethnicity

  Malays

Reference

Reference

  Indians

0.69 (0.51 to 0.86)**

0.70 (0.52 to 0.89)**

Baseline IOP, mm Hg

−0.68 (−0.70 to −0.65)**

−0.69 (−0.71 to −0.66)**

Smoking status

  Never

Reference

  Current smoker

−0.22 (−0.51 to 0.07)

  Past smoker

−0.14 (−0.46 to 0.19)

Body mass index, kg/m2

0.04 (0.02 to 0.06)**

0.02 (0.01 to 0.04)*

Diabetes

0.40 (0.19 to 0.60)**

0.27 (0.06 to 0.49)*

HbA1c (%)

0.09 (0.03 to 0.16)*

0.05 (−0.02 to 0.12)

Hypertensive status

  Subgroup 1: normotensive at baseline and follow-up

Reference

Reference

  Subgroup 2: normotensive at baseline and hypertensive at follow-up

0.76 (0.49 to 1.04)**

0.67 (0.39 to 0.95)**

  Subgroup 3: hypertensive at baseline and follow-up

0.60 (0.38 to 0.82)**

0.46 (0.22 to 0.70)**

  Subgroup 4: hypertensive at baseline and normotensive at follow-up

0.22 (−0.20 to 0.63)

0.18 (−0.24 to 0.60)

  • *Denotes P<0.05.

  • **Denotes P<0.001.

  • †Model 1 adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and IOP.

  • ‡Model 2 adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, IOP, body mass index, diabetes and hypertensive. When HbA1c was assessed as an exposure, diabetes was removed from the model.

  • –, data were intentionally omitted; HbA1c, haemoglobin A1c.