Table 3

Association with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) by hypertensive status assessed using multivariate linear regression models with generalised estimating equations

Characteristics

Change in IOP (mm Hg)

β (95% CI)

All (n=3188 persons; 6376 eyes)†

Subgroup 1 (n=907 persons; 1814 eyes)‡

Subgroups 2 and 3 (n=2140 persons; 4280 eyes)†

Subgroup 4 (n=141 persons; 282 eyes)‡

Model with SBP

  Baseline SBP, per 10 mm Hg

0.20 (0.14 to 0.26)**

0.31 (0.12 to 0.50)*

0.16 (0.09 to 0.24)**

−0.04 (−0.55 to 0.45)

  Change in SBP, per 10 mm Hg

0.27 (0.21 to 0.33)**

0.31 (0.20 to 0.57)**

0.24 (0.17 to 0.31)**

0.26 (−0.18 to 0.71)

  Antihypertensive medications

   Neither examinations

Reference

Reference

Reference

   Baseline only

0.43 (−0.01 to 0.97)

0.62 (0.02 to 1.23)*

−1.34 (−2.81 to 0.13)

   Follow-up only

−0.01 (−0.23 to 0.27)

−0.04 (−0.36 to 0.28)

   Both examinations

0.02 (−0.23 to 0.27)

0.01 (−0.29 to 0.30)

Model with DBP

  Baseline DBP, per 10 mm Hg

0.33 (0.22 to 0.44)**

0.29 (0.01 to 0.59)*

0.27 (0.14 to 0.41)**

0.14 (−0.53 to 0.81)

  Change in DBP, per 10 mm Hg

0.52 (0.41 to 0.63)**

0.57 (0.27 to 0.87)**

0.45 (0.32 to 0.58)**

0.67 (0.06 to 1.28)*

  Antihypertensive medications

   Neither examinations

Reference

Reference

Reference

   Baseline only

0.47 (−0.06 to 1.01)

0.60 (0.01 to 1.21)*

−1.12 (−2.22 to −0.02)*

   Follow-up only

0.05 (−0.22 to 0.33)

−0.07 (−0.39 to 0.25)

   Both examinations

0.06 (−0.18 to 0.31)

−0.03 (−0.32 to 0.26)

  • Subgroups refer to hypertensive status: subgroup 1: normotensive at baseline and follow-up; subgroup 2: normotensive at baseline and hypertensive at follow-up; subgroup 3: hypertensive at baseline and follow-up; and subgroup 4: hypertensive at baseline and normotensive at follow-up.

  • *Denotes P<0.05.

  • **Denotes P<0.001.

  • †Model with SBP (or DBP) adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, IOP, body mass index, diabetes, SBP (or DBP), change in SBP (or change in DBP) and antihypertensive medications.

  • ‡Model with SBP (or DBP) adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, IOP, body mass index, diabetes, SBP (or DBP) and change in SBP (or change in DBP).

  • –, data were intentionally omitted; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; IOP, intraocular pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure.