Table 1

Characteristics of participants by hypertensive status

SubgroupsTotalSubgroup 1Subgroup 2Subgroup 3Subgroup 4P values*
BaselineNormotensiveNormotensiveHypertensiveHypertensive
Follow-upNormotensiveHypertensiveHypertensiveNormotensive
Number of participants, %3188 (100)907 (28)484 (15)1656 (52)141 (5)
Number of eyes637618149683312282
Age, years54.4±8.550.1±6.552.5±7.357.5±8.652.7±8.2<0.001
Gender, female1678 (53)470 (52)261 (54)883 (53)64 (45)0.278
Ethnicity
  Malays1519 (48)365 (40)207 (43)871 (53)76 (54)<0.001
  Indians1669 (52)542 (60)277 (57)785 (47)65 (46)
Smoking Status
  Never2235 (70)628 (69)331 (69)1188 (72)88 (63)<0.001
  Current smoker534 (17)189 (21)93 (19)215 (13)34 (26)
  Past smoker415 (13)88 (10)60 (12)251 (15)16 (11)
Body mass index, kg/m226.4±4.625.0±4.126.2±4.427.3±4.726.0±4.7<0.001
Diabetes915 (30)125 (16)122 (26)639 (40)29 (21)<0.001
HbA1c (%)6.3±1.45.8±0.86.3±1.66.5±1.46.2±1.2<0.001
Blood pressure, mm Hg
  Systolic137.2±21.2119.2±10.6127.5±8.6149.8±20.14139.0±13.7<0.001
  Diastolic78.9±10.672.7±7.075.9±7.183.0±11.380.9±9.0<0.001
Change in blood pressure, mm Hg
  Systolic0.2±19.6†2.9±11.2†14.0±16.2†−4.4±22.0†−10.3±13.8†<0.001
  Diastolic−1.2±10.5†1.0±6.8†5.0±8.9†−4.0±11.5†−4.4±8.9†<0.001
Antihypertensive medications
  Neither examinations1782 (56)887 (100)341 (71)437 (26)117 (85)<0.001
  Baseline only141 (5)121 (7)20 (15)
  Follow-up only500 (16)139 (29)361 (22)
  Both examinations737 (23)737 (45)
IOP, mm Hg15.4±3.014.9±2.915.4±2.915.7±3.015.5±2.9<0.001
Change in IOP, mm Hg−0.5±3.1†−0.4±3.0†0.0±3.1−0.6±3.2†−0.8±3.1†<0.001
  • Data are mean±SD or number (%), as appropriate.

  • *Test for differences between hypertensive groups, based on one-way analysis of variance test for continuous variables and with χ2 tests for categorical variables.

  • †P<0.05. Test for differences in continuous variables between baseline versus follow-up, based on Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test.

  • IOP, intraocular pressure.