Table 2

Association with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) assessed using multivariate linear regression models with generalised estimating equations (n=3188 persons; 6376 eyes)

CharacteristicsChange in IOP (mm Hg)
β (95% CI)
Model 1†Model 2‡*
Age, per 5 years−0.02 (−0.07 to 0.03)−0.07 (−0.13 to −0.01)*
Gender, female0.46 (0.29 to 0.64)**0.35 (0.12 to 0.58)*
Ethnicity
  MalaysReferenceReference
  Indians0.69 (0.51 to 0.86)**0.70 (0.52 to 0.89)**
Baseline IOP, mm Hg−0.68 (−0.70 to −0.65)**−0.69 (−0.71 to −0.66)**
Smoking status
  NeverReference
  Current smoker−0.22 (−0.51 to 0.07)
  Past smoker−0.14 (−0.46 to 0.19)
Body mass index, kg/m20.04 (0.02 to 0.06)**0.02 (0.01 to 0.04)*
Diabetes0.40 (0.19 to 0.60)**0.27 (0.06 to 0.49)*
HbA1c (%)0.09 (0.03 to 0.16)*0.05 (−0.02 to 0.12)
Hypertensive status
  Subgroup 1: normotensive at baseline and follow-upReferenceReference
  Subgroup 2: normotensive at baseline and hypertensive at follow-up0.76 (0.49 to 1.04)**0.67 (0.39 to 0.95)**
  Subgroup 3: hypertensive at baseline and follow-up0.60 (0.38 to 0.82)**0.46 (0.22 to 0.70)**
  Subgroup 4: hypertensive at baseline and normotensive at follow-up0.22 (−0.20 to 0.63)0.18 (−0.24 to 0.60)
  • *Denotes P<0.05.

  • **Denotes P<0.001.

  • †Model 1 adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and IOP.

  • ‡Model 2 adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, IOP, body mass index, diabetes and hypertensive. When HbA1c was assessed as an exposure, diabetes was removed from the model.

  • –, data were intentionally omitted; HbA1c, haemoglobin A1c.