Table 3

Association with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) by hypertensive status assessed using multivariate linear regression models with generalised estimating equations

CharacteristicsChange in IOP (mm Hg)
β (95% CI)
All (n=3188 persons; 6376 eyes)†Subgroup 1 (n=907 persons; 1814 eyes)‡Subgroups 2 and 3 (n=2140 persons; 4280 eyes)†Subgroup 4 (n=141 persons; 282 eyes)‡
Model with SBP
  Baseline SBP, per 10 mm Hg0.20 (0.14 to 0.26)**0.31 (0.12 to 0.50)*0.16 (0.09 to 0.24)**−0.04 (−0.55 to 0.45)
  Change in SBP, per 10 mm Hg0.27 (0.21 to 0.33)**0.31 (0.20 to 0.57)**0.24 (0.17 to 0.31)**0.26 (−0.18 to 0.71)
  Antihypertensive medications
   Neither examinationsReferenceReferenceReference
   Baseline only0.43 (−0.01 to 0.97)0.62 (0.02 to 1.23)*−1.34 (−2.81 to 0.13)
   Follow-up only−0.01 (−0.23 to 0.27)−0.04 (−0.36 to 0.28)
   Both examinations0.02 (−0.23 to 0.27)0.01 (−0.29 to 0.30)
Model with DBP
  Baseline DBP, per 10 mm Hg0.33 (0.22 to 0.44)**0.29 (0.01 to 0.59)*0.27 (0.14 to 0.41)**0.14 (−0.53 to 0.81)
  Change in DBP, per 10 mm Hg0.52 (0.41 to 0.63)**0.57 (0.27 to 0.87)**0.45 (0.32 to 0.58)**0.67 (0.06 to 1.28)*
  Antihypertensive medications
   Neither examinationsReferenceReferenceReference
   Baseline only0.47 (−0.06 to 1.01)0.60 (0.01 to 1.21)*−1.12 (−2.22 to −0.02)*
   Follow-up only0.05 (−0.22 to 0.33)−0.07 (−0.39 to 0.25)
   Both examinations0.06 (−0.18 to 0.31)−0.03 (−0.32 to 0.26)
  • Subgroups refer to hypertensive status: subgroup 1: normotensive at baseline and follow-up; subgroup 2: normotensive at baseline and hypertensive at follow-up; subgroup 3: hypertensive at baseline and follow-up; and subgroup 4: hypertensive at baseline and normotensive at follow-up.

  • *Denotes P<0.05.

  • **Denotes P<0.001.

  • †Model with SBP (or DBP) adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, IOP, body mass index, diabetes, SBP (or DBP), change in SBP (or change in DBP) and antihypertensive medications.

  • ‡Model with SBP (or DBP) adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, IOP, body mass index, diabetes, SBP (or DBP) and change in SBP (or change in DBP).

  • –, data were intentionally omitted; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; IOP, intraocular pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure.